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:: مصطلحات مهمّة في علم تقويم الأسنان ::

Appliances
Any device, attached to the teeth or removable, designed to move the teeth, change the position of the jaw, or hold the teeth in their finished

positions after braces are removed.

Arch
Upper or lower jaw

 

Archwire


The metal wire that is attached to the brackets and used to move the teeth

 

 

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Band
The metal ring that is cemented to a tooth for strength and anchorage

 

 

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Braces
A word commonly used to describe a fixed orthodontic appliance, usually comprised of brackets, bands and wires

 

Diagram of Braces
The diagram below illustrates and names each part of a typical set of braces

 

 

A. Ligature


The archwire is held to each bracket with a ligature, which can be either a tiny elastic or a twisted wire.

B. Archwire


The archwire is tied to all of the brackets and creates force to move teeth into proper alignment.

C. Brackets


Brackets are connected to the bands, or directly bonded on the teeth, and hold the archwire in place.

D. Metal Band


The band is the cemented ring of metal which wraps around the tooth.

E. Bracket Hooks
The bracket or band extensions that are used for the attachment of rubber bands

 

Bracket
The small metal, ceramic, or plastic attachment bonded to each tooth with a tooth-colored adhesive. The bracket has a slot that the archwire fits into

 

 

 

 

Brushing
Brushing the teeth is part of an individual’s daily home dental care. Patients with braces should follow the orthodontist’s instruction on how often to brush

 

Bruxism
Grinding the teeth, usually during sleeping. Bruxism can cause abnormal tooth wear and may lead to pain in the jaw joints

 

Buccal
The cheek side of the back teeth in both arches or jaws

Buccal Tube
A small metal part of the bracket welded to the cheek side of the molar band. The tube may hold an archwire, lip bumper, headgear facebow or other appliances an orthodontist may use to move the teeth

 

 

 

Cephalometric Radiograph
A lateral (side view) x-ray of the head

 

 

 

Chain
A stretchable series of elastic o-rings connected together and placed around each bracket to hold the archwire in place and move the teeth

 

 

 

 

 

Class I Malocclusion
A malocclusion with the proper molar relationship and teeth that are crowded together, spaced apart, an overbite, an openbite, a posterior crossbite or an anterior crossbite

 

 

 

 

Closed Bite/Deep Bite
Also known as deep overbite, this occurs when the upper front teeth overlap the bottom front teeth an excessive amount

 

 

 

 

 

Comprehensive Treatment
Complete orthodontic treatment performed to correct a malocclusion

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Congenitally Missing Teeth
A genetic occurrence in which the expected number of permanent teeth do not develop

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Crossbite
Upper posterior (back) teeth are in crossbite if they erupt and function inside or outside of the arch in the lower posterior teeth. Lower anterior (front) teeth are I crossbite if they erupt and function in front of the upper anterior teeth. A crossbite can be individual teeth or groups of teeth

 

A posterior crossbite

DDS or DMD
DDS (Doctor of Dental Surgery) and DMD (Doctor of Dental Medicine) are equivalent degrees, according to The American Dental Association. All orthodontists educated in the U.S. or Canada will have either a DDS or DMD after their names. Orthodontists have an additional two to three years of specialty education in an accredited orthodontic residency program after dental school to become orthodontists

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Diagnostic Records


The material and information that the orthodontist needs to properly diagnose and plan a patient’s treatment. Diagnostic records may include a thorough patient health history, a visual examination of the teeth and supporting structures, plaster models of the teeth, a wax bite registration, extraoral and intraoral photographs, a panoramic and a cephalometric radiograph

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Ectopic Eruption
Term used to describe a tooth or teeth that erupt in an abnormal position

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Eruption

The process by which teeth enter into the mouth

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Extraction
The removal of a tooth

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Elastics
Rubber bands. During certain stages of treatment, small elastics or rubber bands are worn to provide individual

tooth movement or jaw alignment

 

 

 

 

Facebow
A wire appliance used with a nightbrace, or headgear Primarily used to move the upper first molars back, creating room for crowded or protrusive front teeth. The facebow has an internal wire bow and an external wire bow. The internal bow attaches to the buccal tube on the upper molar bands inside the mouth and the outer bow attaches to the breakaway safety strap of the nightbrace

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Fiberotomy


A surgical procedure designed to sever fibers of attachment around the tooth, usually performed to reduce the potential for relapse or post-orthodontic treatment tooth movement

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Fixed Appliances
An orthodontic appliance that is bonded or cemented to the teeth and cannot be or should not be removed by the patient

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Flossing


An important part of daily home dental care. Flossing removes plaque and food debris from between the teeth, brackets and wires. Flossing keeps teeth and gums clean and healthy during orthodontic treatment.

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Frenectomy
The surgical removal or repositioning of the frenum, the lip and tongue attachment located between the upper and lower front teeth. A large frenum attachment can cause spacing between top front teeth or cause the tongue to be tied-

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Functional Appliances


Appliances that utilize the muscle action produced when speaking, eating and swallowing to produce force to move the teeth and align the jaws. They are also known as orthopedic appliances with names such as orthopedic corrector, activator, bionator, Frankel, Herbst or twin block appliances

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Gingiva
Soft tissue around the teeth, also known as the gums

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Gummy Smile


Showing an excessive amount of gingival (gum) tissue above the front teeth when smiling

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Headgear
An appliance worn outside of the mouth to provide traction for growth modification and tooth movement.

Herbst Appliance
This appliance is used to move the lower jaw forward. It can be fixed or removable. When it is fixed, it is cemented to teeth in one or both arches using stainless steel crowns. An expansion screw may be used simultaneously to widen the upper jaw

 

Impaction
A tooth that does not erupt into the mouth or only erupts partially is considered impacted

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Interceptive Treatment


Orthodontic treatment performed to intercept a developing problem. Usually performed on younger patients that have a mixture of primary baby) teeth and permanent teeth)

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Interproximal Reduction
Removal of a small amount of enamel from between the teeth to reduce their width. Also known as reproximation, slenderizing, stripping, enamel reduction or selective reduction. See brochure at http://www.braces.org/healthcareprof…hodonticstaff/.)

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Labial


The surface of the teeth in both arches that faces the lips

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Lighting Modules
A small elastic o-ring, shaped like a donut, used to hold the archwire in the bracket

 

Lingual


The tongue side of the teeth in both arches

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Lip Bumper
A wire appliance used to move the lower molars back and the lower front teeth forward, creating room for crowded front teeth. The lip bumper is an internal wire bow that attaches to the buccal tubes on the cheek side of the lower molar bands inside the mouth. The front portion of the bow has an acrylic pad or bumper that rests against the inside of the lower lip. The lower lip muscles apply pressure to the bumper creating a force that moves the molars back

 

Lip Incompetence
The inability to close the lips together at rest, usually due to protrusive front teeth or excessively long faces

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Malocclusion
The term used in orthodontics to describe teeth that do not fit together properly. From Latin, the term means “bad bite”

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Mandible
Lower jaw.


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Maxilla
Upper jaw

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Mixed Dentition

The dental developmental stage in children (approximately ages 6-12) when they have a mix of primary (baby) and permanent teeth

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Mouthguard
A removable device used to protect the teeth and mouth from injury caused by sporting activities. The use of a mouthguard is especially important for orthodontic patients

Nightguard


A removable appliance worn at night to help an individual minimize the damage or wear while clenching or grinding teeth during sleep

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Open Bite

A malocclusion in which teeth do not make contact with each other. With an anterior open bite, the front teeth do not touch when the back teeth are closed together. With a posterior open bite, the back teeth do not touch when the front teeth are closed together

 

An example of an anterior open bite

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Palatal Expander
A fixed or removable device used to make the upper jaw wider.

 

 

 

to be continue…

 

 

Orthodontics


The specialty area of dentistry concerned with the diagnosis, supervision, guidance and correction of malocclusions. The formal name of the specialty is orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics.

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Orthodontist


A specialist in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of dental and facial irregularities. Orthodontists are required to complete college requirements, graduate from an accredited dental school and successfully complete a minimum of two academic years of full-time, university-based study at an accredited orthodontic residency program. Only those who have completed this education may call themselves “orthodontists.” Orthodontists limit their practice to orthodontic treatment only unless they have training in another dental specialty. Only residency-certified orthodontists may be members of the American Association of Orthodontists.

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Orthopedic Appliance

A removable functional appliance designed to guide the growth of the jaws and face.

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Panoramic Radiograph
An x-ray that shows all the teeth and both jaws on one film

 

 

Class II Malocclusion
A malocclusion with the upper front teeth protruding or due to the lower teeth and/or jaw positioned back relative to the upper teeth and/or jaw

 

Class III Malocclusion
A malocclusion with the lower front teeth protruding or due to the lower teeth and/or jaw positioned ahead relative to the upper teeth and/or jaw

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